Planar Hypercoordinate Motifs in Two-Dimensional Materials
Wang, Y (Wang, Yu)[ 1 ] ; Li, YF (Li, Yafei)[ 1 ]*(李亚飞）; Chen, ZF (Chen, Zhongfang)[ 2 ]
[ 1 ] Nanjing Normal Univ, Jiangsu Collaborat Innovat Ctr Biomed Funct Mat, Sch Chem & Mat Sci, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China
[ 2 ] Univ Puerto Rico, Dept Chem, Sun Juan, PR 00931 USA
ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH，202004,53(4),887-895
As one of the most important and versatile elements, carbon renders itself as one of the most fundamental and cutting-edge topics in chemistry, physics, and materials science. Many carbon-based chemical rules were established accordingly. While the tetrahedral predilection of tetracoordinate carbon has been a cornerstone of organic chemistry since 1874, almost a century later tetracoordinate carbon was found to be able to adopt planar structures known as planar tetracoordinate carbon (ptC), which are stabilized electronically by good pi-acceptor (delocalization of a lone electron pair of ptC) or sigma-donor (promoting electron transfer to electron-deficient bonding) substituents or mechanically by appropriate steric enforcement. The experimental and theoretical achievements for the rule-breaking ptC species totally refreshed our understanding of chemical bonding and triggered exploration of peculiar molecules featuring planar pentacoordinate carbon (ppC) and planar hexacoordinate carbon (phC) as well as other outlandish species such as planar hypercoordinate silicon.
While the planar hypercoordinate carbon chemistry has been gradually established for molecules in the past five decades, there is growing interest in pursuing their extension systems, especially in two-dimensional (2D) space as a result of the recent extensive studies of graphene and its analogues. Though the natural 2D layered crystals do not contain any planar hypercoordinate carbon or silicon, several 2D nanosheets featuring planar or quasi-planar hypercoordinate ones have been theoretically suggested. Encouragingly, these unique planar configurations possess decent stabilities, and some of them are even the global minimum structure, exhibiting great potential for experimental realization. As the nature of a material is mainly determined by its structural characteristics (e.g., dimensionality, crystallography, and bonding), the combination of planar hypercoordinate chemistry and 2D nanoscience not only endows these rule-breaking systems with the merits of 2D materials but also may offer various promising properties and applications. For example, an unusual negative Poisson's ratio can be found in ppC-containing Be5C2 and planar pentacoordinate silicon (ppSi)-containing CaSi monolayers, of which the former has an anisotropic Dirac cone and the latter is a semiconductor with a desirable band gap for the semiconductor industry. Specially, shortly after the theoretical prediction, a planar hexacoordinate silicon (phSi)-containing Cu2Si monolayer was experimentally synthesized and characterized with the 2D Dirac nodal line fermion, which offers a platform to achieve high-speed, low-dissipation nanodevices.
In this Account, we review the recent progress, mostly by density functional theory (DFT) computations, in designing 2D materials with planar hypercoordinate motifs. We describe the key achievements in this field, paying special attention to the "bottom-up" and "isoelectronic substitution" design strategies. In addition, the fundamental stabilization mechanisms of planar hypercoordinate motifs in an infinite layer are discussed. We hope that this Account will inspire more experimental and theoretical efforts to explore nanomaterials with such unconventional chemical bonding.